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196 SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS
Supercritical fluids are involved in a wide variety of applications which have shown a significant progress in recent years. Many industrial sectors are concerned including cosmetics, pharmaceutics, materials, chemistry or energy. Other areas are in rapid development such as the cleaning of mechanical parts or the surface preparation of microelectronics. It should be noted that water (Tc = 374 °C, Pc = 221 bars), which critical point is higher than that of CO2 (Tc = 31 °C, Pc = 74 bars), is nevertheless very much studied as a reaction medium, finding applications in the synthesis of nanoparticles and the recovery and treatment of waste.
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55 Innovative process for the production of metal fluorides
A recently developed process to produce nanoparticles on the basis of metal-fluorine compounds. These metal fluorides offer new perspectives to a broad range of applications including coatings, ceramics and catalysts.
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39 Inorganic and organic nanofibrous materials
Novel nanofibrous materials have been developed such as ceramic nanofibers and organic nanofibers that have a plurality of applications.
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14 Supercritical water process for total degradation of organic molecules
Around its critical point at 221 bars and 375°C, water is a highly oxidizing medium. Oxidation of any organic molecules undergo in a very fast chemical reaction with oxygen species from the critical water. The residues of the reaction are mainly carbon dioxide, water, nitrogen and sulphates and phosphates.The water at the output of the process does not contain any more organic molecule.
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